The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura are the winners for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.

1. Isamu Akasaki

Born: 30 January 1929, Chiran, Japan

Affiliation at the time of the award: Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

Prize motivation: "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Field: semiconductor technology
Prize share: 1/3

Complete List of Nobel Prize Winners 2014

2. Hiroshi Amano

Born: 11 September 1960, Hamamatsu, Japan

Affiliation at the time of the award: Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

Prize motivation: "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Field: semiconductor technology

Prize share: 1/3

3. Shuji Nakamura

Born: 22 May 1954, Ikata, Japan

Affiliation at the time of the award: University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Prize motivation: "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Field: semiconductor technology

Prize share: 1/3

Created Efficient Blue LEDs

Lighting plays a major role in our quality of life. The development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has made more efficient light sources possible. Creating white light that can be used for lighting requires a combination of red, green, and blue light. Blue LEDs proved to be much more difficult to create than red and green diodes. During the 1980s and 1990s Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura successfully used the difficult-to-handle semiconductor gallium nitride to create efficient blue LEDs.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014

Nobel Prize Winners 2014-Nobel Prize Medal

Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner are the winners for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.

1. Eric Betzig

Born: 13 January 1960, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA.

Prize motivation: "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Field: physical chemistry
Prize share: 1/3

2. Stefan W. Hell

Born: 23 December 1962, Arad, Romania

Affiliation at the time of the award: Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Prize motivation: "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Field: physical chemistry
Prize share: 1/3

3. William E. Moerner

Born: 24 June 1953, Pleasanton, CA, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Prize motivation: "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Field: physical chemistry
Prize share: 1/3

Developed Microscopy Method
In normal microscopes the wavelength of light sets a limit to the level of detail possible. However this limitation can be circumvented by methods that make use of fluorescence, a phenomenon in which certain substances become luminous after having been exposed to light. Around 2000, Eric Betzig and William E. Moerner helped create a method in which fluorescence in individual molecules is steered by light. An image of very high resolution is achieved by combining images in which different molecules are activated. This makes it possible to track processes occurring inside living cells.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser are the winners for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.

1. John O'Keefe

Born: 18 November 1939, New York, NY, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: University College, London, United Kingdom.

Prize motivation: "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

Field: physiology, spatial behavior
Prize share: 1/2

2. May-Britt Moser

Born: 4 January 1963, Fosnavåg, Norway

Affiliation at the time of the award: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Prize motivation: "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

Field: physiology, spatial behavior.
Prize share: 1/4

3. Edvard I. Moser

Born: 27 April 1962, Ålesund, Norway

Affiliation at the time of the award: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Prize motivation: "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

Field: physiology, spatial behavior
Prize share: 1/4

Discovered the Brain's Positioning System
The awareness of one's location and how to find the way to other places is crucial for both humans and animals. In 2005 May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser discovered a type of cell that is important for determining position close to the hippocampus, an area located in the center of the brain. They found that when a rat passed certain points arranged in a hexagonal grid in space, nerve cells that form a kind of coordinate system for navigation were activated. They then went on to demonstrate how these different cell types cooperate.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014

Patrick Modiano is the winner for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation.

1. Patrick Modiano

Born: 30 July 1945, Paris, France

Residence at the time of the award: France.

Prize motivation: "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation".

Field: prose
Language: French
Prize share: 1/1

Depicts Memory, Oblivion and Identity
Good stories are often characterized by their exploration of universal but difficult questions, at the same time as they are grounded in everyday settings and historical events. Patrick Modiano's works center around subjects like memory, oblivion, identity, and guilt. The city of Paris plays a central role in his writing, and his stories are often based on events that occurred during the German occupation of France during World War II. At times, Modiano's stories are based on his own experience or on interviews, newspaper articles, or his own notes.

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014

Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai are the winners for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education.

1. Kailash Satyarthi

Born: 11 January 1954, Vidisha, India.

Residence at the time of the award: India.

Prize motivation: "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".
Prize share: 1/2

Works against Child Labour
Much of the world's population, especially in poor countries, is made up of children and young people. To achieve a peaceful world, it is crucial that the rights of children and young people be respected. Following the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi, Indian activist Kailash Satyarthi has waged a peaceful struggle to stop children being exploited as labor instead of attending school. He has also contributed to the development of international conventions on the rights of children.

2. Malala Yousafzai

Born: 12 July 1997, Mingora, Pakistan

Residence at the time of the award: United Kingdom.

Prize motivation: "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".

Prize share: 1/2

Works for Children's Right to Education
Much of the world's population, especially in poor countries, is made up of children and young people. To achieve a peaceful world, it is crucial that the rights of children and young people be respected. Injustices perpetrated against children contribute to the spread of conflicts to future generations. Already at eleven years of age Malala Yousafzai fought for girls' right to education. After having suffered an attack on her life by Taliban gunmen in 2012, she has continued her struggle and become a leading advocate of girls' rights.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014

Jean Tirole is the winner for his analysis of market power and regulation.

1. Jean Tirole

Born: 9 August 1953, Troyes, France

Affiliation at the time of the award: Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), Toulouse, France.

Prize motivation: "for his analysis of market power and regulation".

Field: industrial organization, microeconomics.
Prize share: 1/1

Analysed Market Power and Regulation
If markets dominated by a small number of companies are left unregulated, society often suffers negative consequences. Prices can become unjustifiably high and new companies can be prevented from entering the market. Since the mid-1980s, Jean Tirole has worked to develop a coherent theory, for example showing that regulation should be adapted to suit specific conditions in each industry. Based on game theory and other theories, Tirole has also suggested a framework for designing regulations and has applied it to a number of industries, from banking to telecommunications.







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